A kit aircraft for the first-time builder and demanding sport pilot.
Reprinted from Contact! Issue 13
Zenair has been a major force in the sport aviation community since its very modest beginnings in 1974, when designer Chris Heintz decided to service the needs of recreational pilots by offering detailed drawings of his designs and pre-formed kit parts from his two-car garage. Heintz' first offerings were the popular Zenith series - one, two and three seat all-metal low-wing kit planes, as well as several competition acrobatic designs. Zenair aircraft are well known in sport aviation communities around the world, with about 800 Zenair planes flying, and about 1,000 more under construction in garages and basements across the country.
On becoming an aeronautical engineer in Switzerland in the early 60's, Heintz briefly worked as a stress analyst at Aerospatiale on the Concorde supersonic transport. He then joined the French Avions Robin company as chief engineer, where he designed and certified several two and four place all-metal light aircraft. In his spare time, Heintz designed and built his own personal aircraft, the two-place ZENITH (anagram of HEINTZ).
In 1972, he moved to Canada to work on the Dash 7 aircraft at de Havilland-Toronto. In 1974, he struck out on his own, forming Zenair Ltd., in response to growing pilot demand for affordable and durable kit aircraft, at a time when the custom kit aircraft industry was just in the infancy stage. Heintz brought with him a wealth of engineering and testing experience, which he applied to his kit aircraft designs. Zenair aircraft, from the beginning, were designed to be simple to build, using all-metal stressed-skin construction, requiring only basic skills and tools. The company has grown by providing superior designs, quality kits, and a personal commitment to customer support. Besides managing the successful company, Heintz works on new designs and prototypes, and stays busy consulting and lecturing on light aircraft design and construction. Chris Heintz has over 12 successful kit designs to his credit.
As general aviation aircraft production plummeted in the early 80's, the aviation industry began exploring the merits of a "primary" aircraft category to stimulate growth and to reduce the costs of flying. Heintz realized the need for new basic light aircraft, as the general aviation aircraft fleet was aging and diminishing at alarming rates. In anticipation of this, Heintz introduced the prototype ZODIAC CH 600 in 1984, originally aimed at the proposed "primary" category, designing the airplane to FAR 23 standards. Equipped with a VW engine, kit sales for the sleek low wing took-off briskly. Zenair introduced the STOL CH 701' aircraft in 1986, which became an overnight success. The STOL aircraft filled a distinct market niche for recreational pilots wanting measurable short take-off and landing capabilities, and has been sold in over 40 countries around the world as a light utility plane.
With the introduction of the 80-HP Rotax 912 engine in 1990, Heintz realized the potential of this light-weight four-stroke engine for the ZODIAC, and he quickly obtained a pre-production model from Rotax (becoming the first North American company to use that engine). Impressed with the Rotax 912, Heintz decided to reintroduce the ZODIAC aircraft design in 1991, making improvements to the original design, adding two new models, and renaming it the ZODIAC CH 601. Zenair kits are now being manufactured in the USA by Zenith Aircraft Company which was recently granted licensee manufacturing and marketing rights.
ZODIAC 601 models offer the ideal project the first-time builder and the demanding sport pilot, offering simple, quick construction, affordability, and fun flying. The sleek low-wing ZODIAC has a wide performance envelope, making it easy to fly (slow landing speed) yet it out performs most light certified aircraft for cross-country flying. Features include a large useful load, simple systems and a rugged all-metal structure, making the aircraft well suited for recreational flying and long range flights.
The ZODIAC offers comfortable two-place side-by-side seating in the 44-inch wide cabin, with easy access from either side from a unique double-hinged clamshell canopy, which also provides excellent 360-degree visibility. Access to the cabin is easy over the 20-inch wide reinforced wing walkway on both sides of the cockpit, and is facilitated by steps located below the trailing edges of the wing. The large main baggage area is located behind the seats for easy access. Two "wing-locker" baggage compartments provide additional storage space. The wing lockers can also hold optional long-range fuel tanks (about 7 gallons in each wing). The ZODIAC outboard wing sections can easily be removed 'in minutes for easy trailering or storage.
The spacious ZODIAC cabin is equipped with a large sheet-metal instrument panel and standard dual controls. The unique center-mounted "Y" control column can easily be used by the pilot or passenger, and does not limit visibility of the instrument panel. Dual throttle controls are mounted on either side of the panel for easy access. The rudder pedals also steer the nose-wheel (on the tricycle configuration), and are equipped with standard hydraulic toe-brakes on the pilot's side.
3 NEW MODELS
The ZODIAC CH 601 HD is the recently updated version of the original 1984 CH 600 model, with the large area, constant-chord wing. This heavy duty (HD) version is stressed a full +/- 6 G's at design gross weight (1200 pounds) and is suitable for most powerplant types ranging from 65 to 115 HP. Low stall speed and docile flight characteristics make this model easy and fun to fly, ideal for local flying or long cross-country flights.
The SUPER ZODIAC CH 601 HDS version incorporates the addition of tapered "Speed Wings", allowing the sporty ZODIAC to fly at 140 MPH on just 80 HP, burning less than four gallons per hour (as powered by the Rotax 912). The SUPER ZODIAC offers increased cross-country flying capabilities, while keeping costs down.
The basic lightweight ZODIAC CH 601 was developed specifically for the Advanced Ultralight category in Canada and other countries. Available as a factory-finished Advanced Ultralight (with a design gross weight of 1,058 pounds) this ZODIAC model is a popular trainer aircraft in Canada (this model must be registered as an Experimental in the US).
Made for the first-time kit builder, the ZODIAC may be built from plans-only, from partial kits or from the complete kit package. Building a ZODIAC from scratch (rather than a kit) necessitates more time, skills, and tools, requiring about 1,200 hours to build (which is shorter than many kits).
The newest Zenair aircraft, the ZODIAC models draw on Zenair's vast design and manufacturing experience, and were developed for the first-time builder: Single curvature sheet-metal skins over the structural members, such as the factory-manufactured spar, ribs, longerons and bulkheads, are fastened with Zenair's proven riveting method using "Avex" blind rivets (which are as easy to set as "Pop" rivets).
Designed with a wide C.G. envelope, the suitable power range for the ZODIAC CH 601 HD and HDS models is between 65 and 115 BHP. Most engines within this power range (including automotive conversions) can be installed, with a maximum weight of approximately 260 pounds. Zenair supplies complete "ready-to-mount" Rotax powerplant and instrument packages. Both the Rotax 582 (65 BHP, liquid cooled, dual ignition, two-stroke) and the Rotax 912 (80 BHP, dual ignition, four cylinder, four-stroke) are available, supplied with the Rotax gear reduction unit, exhaust system, fiberglass cowl, propeller, and all other accessories "firewall forward". Complete instrument packages with basic flight and engine instruments are also available.
OVERALL DESIGN FEATURES
Every new Zenair design is put through a thorough flight test program by Chris Heintz before being marketed by the company. The design process includes a full stress analysis of the aircraft's structure, an important customer consideration very few kit companies can claim. While being an "experimental" (homebuilt) aircraft, the ZODIAC's design and construction utilizes proven materials and techniques. The ZODIAC's airfoil provides exquisite slow flight and stall characteristics; flaps are not required with the high-lift wing designs of the ZODIAC. The ZODIAC wings are made up of a single cantilevered spar with near full-span "elastically" hinged ailerons. The CH 601 and CH 601 HD models use a simple 18-percent constant-chord airfoil while the CH 601 HDS features a tapered wing. Hoerner wing tips are used to maximize the effective wing span, and the outboard wing panels can easily be removed in 15 minutes for trailering and storage (and fits through the door of a standard single-car garage). The fuselage has a basic rectangular section with a rounded top, made up of single-curvature sheet-metal with extrusion and bulkhead reinforcements. The fuselage bottom is flat, and aesthetically rounded at the front to join the sleek fiberglass engine cowl.
The classic horizontal tail has a stabilizer and elevator, equipped with a standard electric trim tab. The unique, full vertical tail is all-moving to provide maximum cross-wind capabilities.
The rugged landing gear may be configured either as tricycle (standard) or as tail dragger (a no cost option). Large 16-inch tires (4.8x8 wheels) and a strong gear which uses bungee shock absorbers provide rough field capabilities. The main wheels are equipped with standard hydraulic disk brakes, and optional wheel pants (fiberglass fairings) are available to provide additional aerodynamic improvements to the sleek aircraft.
The all-metal airframe is similar in design and construction to other Heintz designs that have proven themselves exhaustively over the years -- being weatherproof (for outdoor storage), corrosion and fatigue resistant, and easy and cheap to maintain.
ZODIAC aircraft are built of conventional stressed-skin semi-monocoque all-metal construction. Sheet-metal construction is the most widely used aircraft building method and has proven itself as the ideal aircraft material since the early pioneering days of aviation. Sturdy and low-fatigue aluminum alloys make the ZODIAC airframe very rugged and corrosion proof. The modern 6061 -T6 aluminum-silicon alloy used in the ZODIAC is very durable and corrosion resistant, ideal for even the cruelest environments, and very easy to repair and maintain. The owner of a Zenair plane is assured of a . long airframe life, with minimum required maintenance, as metal is not adversely effected by ultra-violet (UV) light and temperature changes, like fabrics, dacron or composites (the aircraft can thus be in- definitely tied-down outdoors to minimize costs). Sheet-metal construction offers many advantages over other construction types. First of all, metal has a well known and documented fatigue and structural strength, making it possible to design an aircraft that will last for several decades with constant use. Also, a well-designed sheet-metal aircraft provides crashworthiness: the metal frame protects the occupants in the event of a hard impact, by progressively collapsing (buckling) the structure, thereby absorbing the impact's energy, and minimizing the forces subjected to the human body. Sheet metal is also a material well suited for the kit builder: all a builder needs to do is drill and rivet the parts together, needing no special skills or tools, avoiding messy doping or mixing of compounds involved which require a higher level of skill. Composite work requires a temperature-controlled environment, proper ventilation, and presents certain health hazards. Unlike all-metal aircraft composite structure is difficult to inspect. Sheet metal construction provides the required durability and low maintenance required of a light aircraft. In workshop demonstrations at Oshkosh and Sun N Fun, Zenair kits have shattered the myth that all-metal aircraft are more difficult or more expensive to build than other types.
The spar is made up of three sections: a fuselage center section and the outboard wing panels, which are bolted to the center spar (for easy disassembly). The kit spar comes completely pre-assembled (drilled and riveted, with flanged lightening holes). The kit aluminum wing ribs and bulkheads are supplied ready-to-install (pre-formed with flanged lightening holes).
The constant chord outboard wing spar is a built up C-beam (2440 mm long and 272 mm high) with spar cap angle extrusions (1.5xlxl/8 inch) bottom to the forward face of the shear web at the wing root. The outboard tip spar extension (590 mm in length) is lap riveted to the main spar. The center section spar is similarly fabricated. Upon completion, the three wing spar sections are positioned at the dihedral angle of 6.5 degrees and joined by 1/8 inch splice plates. This step ensures that the wing assembly maintains the correct wing alignment once the center section is attached to the fuselage. In the "49%" kit, wing dihedral is preset at the factory.
Each side of the airplane requires ten nose and rear ribs which are formed from .025 stock (.032 inch at the landing gear stations). Plans specify the construction of airfoil profile form blocks, built up 3/4 inch plywood covered by 1/8 inch aluminum stock. Flanged lightening holes are specified for both ribs. Assembly of ribs to the outboard spar is next. Holes are drilled in the shear web at the specified rib stations. These are used as pilot holes for drilling the rib flanges. Avdel "Avex" AD 5 blind rivets are used to join nose and rear ribs to the spar web.
The rear tip extension is riveted to the spar. Upper and lower wing skins of .016 thickness are fitted to the spar and rib skeleton. Chordwise angle stiffeners (12 total) are formed from .025 stock for the top and bottom rear skins of the outer wing panels. These are located and marked in the middle of each rib bay. These stiffeners are then drilled and riveted to the skins using A4 rivets at a 75 mm pitch spacing (A4 75p).
Before the top skin is attached care is taken to level the spar/rib assembly on the flat work bench. The wing has no washout twist so it is a simple matter to align the flat ribs bottoms in one plane. The drilled surface sheet-metal skins are blind riveted using Avex rivets to the spar, ribs and bulkheads (A4 70p), leaving the trailing edge temporarily unattached. Any minor upper skin wrinkles can be easily removed at this stage by gently tapping out the offending area from the inside of the structure. Structural reinforcement angles are added to specific areas of the wing tip and the luggage locker. Most skins in the kit version are pre-drilled with a CNC drilling machine, are cut to size and are pre-formed, ready for assembly.
The bottom wing skin is attached next (A4 75p). Dimensioned diagrams are provided for layout and cutting out to approximate size the top, bottom and front wing tip skins. The top tip skin is folded to a 1/8 inch radius to form a clean trailing edge and is attached to the structure (A4 40p) and (A4 70p). A reinforcement angle is formed and riveted to the middle of the tip bay (A3 120p). The bottom tip skin is added.
The next step is the attachment of the .025 leading edge skin (945x2440 mm). The generous nose radius is simply formed over a 4 inch pipe using a 8 foot board and additional hands. This piece laps over the top and bottom skins. Working from the bottom rear to the front the located skin is drilled and clecoed. Using 2 inch cargo ratchet straps and a wood spacer on the rear "Zee", the skin is pulled over the wing ribs. With the wing aligned, additional holes are drilled, clecoed and finally riveted (A4 40p). The leading wing tip skin is attached (A4 40p) completing the outboard wing panel.
The unique "hingeless" ailerons, 2440 mm in length, are made up of a simple pre-formed single sheet-metal .016 inch skin with five internal ribs (.016 and .025). Eight equally spaced A4 rivets attach each rib to the aileron skin. A .063 inch aileron horn is riveted to the inboard rib. An unique feature of the Zodiac is the addition of wing washout to the ailerons. A 5 mm twist is created by shimming the aileron tip and riveting the assembly closed. The 40 mm extension of the upper aileron surface acts as a hinge when riveted to the rear of the wing (between the skin and the "Zee" section layers), providing a very effective gap seal.
The center section assembly consists of the front spar, the rear "Zee", ten ribs, landing gear pocket reinforcements, seat panel, seat bottom, seat belt attachments and outer and bottom skins. The "Y" center mounted elevator and aileron control stick assembly is fabricated from welded 413ON 1.125 x.035 inch tubes and 1/8 inch plates. Its torque tube is installed during this phase of construction. The rear torque tube bearing assembly also supports elevator and rudder cable fairleads.
Aileron bell cranks are mounted between the rear lightening holes on the outboard ribs. A conventional push rod actuates each aileron horn. Maximum aileron deflection is controlled by filing clearances in the bell cranks opposite the lightening holes. Custom cable terminals can be made from 6061-T6 angles (leftover sections from spar caps), cable thimbles, Nicopress sleeves, AN 4 bolts and locknuts.
Other operations to the center section, including front and rear wing attachments, cutouts for access to the splice bolts, and gear reinforcement structure, are performed later.
Tail surfaces are next in the construction sequence. Since the construction manual describes wing assembly in detail and most of the tail construction steps duplicate those of the wing the manual only covers items unique to the horizontal stabilizer, elevator and rudder.
The horizontal stabilizer tail structure is built from two .025 inch spars and eight ribs (.016 and .025). Spar attachment areas are reinforced by .032 doublers. The .016 skin radius is preformed using a 3/4 inch stop and a sheet of 1/2 inch plywood as a press. Front and rear spar attachments are formed .063 sheet metal.
The elevator is fabricated like the ailerons. The one-piece .01 6 skin and six .01 6 ribs are formed. A continuous aircraft piano hinge is inserted into the elevator skin closure and is riveted in place. An assembly of doublers on the skin and spar face transfer flight loads to the upper and lower .063 elevator horns. A elevator trim tab is standard equipment, with the light tab motor mounted in the elevator.
The plans built tapered vertical tail requires six rib form blocks to make the .025 (closure) and .016 ribs. The .025 spar, its .040 doubler and .016 skins are bent up. Assembly of the spar and doubler is followed by the addition of the upper bearing (two 3/4x3/4x.093 6061 angles). Ribs are added. The rear skin is riveted (A4 70P) to the inside ribs and to the closure ribs (A4 40p). The front skin is riveted to the two nose ribs and the spar flange (A4 40p). The rudder horn of .125 stock also acts as the lower rudder bearing. Twelve A4 rivets attach it to the bottom of the rudder assembly.
A highly detailed rudder assembly manual is included with each kit or set of plans. It serves to introduce the builder to the tools, techniques, and steps in building aluminum airframes. In addition, a rudder construction kit is also available to introduce first-time builders to the Zenair kit.
The fuselage is built up in stages and requires no special assembly fixtures. Major steps involved include the rear fuselage area, the forward fuselage, fuselage front and rear assembly, front fuselage/firewall assembly, forward fuselage bottom longerons, tail installation, and assembly of the fuselage top and top skins.
Construction begins with the assembly of the .016 rear bottom skin, .040 angle longerons, .025 angle panel stiffeners and local reinforcements. The four stiffeners are spaced 400 mm apart and attached with rivets (A4 60p). Longerons are added taking care to avoid riveting in areas which join other parts of the airframe. Unlike other structural materials aluminum construction allows for occasional mistakes since rivets can be drilled out.
The bottom .063 rudder hinge plates are attached to the bottom skin and two horizontal tail frames (bulkheads) are clecoed in place. Side skins (.016) and .025 top longerons are attached, temporarily leaving out rivets within 600 mm from the tail. Vertical side skin stiffeners on 380 mm centers correspond to the angled bottom stiffener stations. The side and bottom skins are clecoed. Diagonal stiffeners are added between the two vertical frames. A .025 rear panel and reinforcements establish structural attach points for the rudder and horizontal stabilizer.
The forward fuselage sides are fabricated next (.016 skins). Longeron angle extrusions (3/4x3/4x.093) are formed to produce curved fuselage sides. This form template is also used as a guide to trim back the wing center section skins to final fuselage contours. The side skins are held against the wing center section, marked and trimmed. Initial joining of fuselage to the center wing section is enabled by a 3/4x3/4x.093 extrusion which is bolted to the center spar and riveted to the side panel. Short angles join the fuselage/wing intersection. This step is repeated for the other side.
The rear fuselage assembly is then fitted and riveted to the front assembly. The formed upper longeron extrusions are installed and the formed galvanized steel firewall (26-26 gauge) is positioned. After forming stiffeners are added to its front and rear faces. Engine mount fittings are fabricated from .050 4130 steel. Grade 90 bolts, 3/8 inch, 2 1/2 long, are tack welded to the fittings. Due to the concentration of engine and landing gear loads the front of the fuselage requires a number of stiffeners on the fuselage skins. Bottom longerons are riveted to the outside of the bottom fuselage skin.
The horizontal tail assembly is leveled with the center section wing. The previously installed rear and front brackets are drilled for the AN-3 attachment bolts. The rudder is fitted to the fuselage with AN-3 bolt through steel bushing assemblies. As with other Zodiac assembly procedures no special jigging is necessary or needed to ensure proper alignment of metal sub-assemblies.
The upper surface of the fuselage is formed by .016 skins fitted over bulkhead formers. The instrument panel and firewall establish the .025 front top contour. Three aluminum frames and two 3/4x.035 formed aluminum tubes support the .01 6 turtledeck skin.
A three piece, swing aside, canopy frame is assembled from formed 3/4x.049 aluminum tubes and .032 gussets. The one piece 1/8 inch thick Plexiglas bubble is trimmed and fitted to the frame. Sheet metal screws and countersunk washers secure the plastic to the frame through 1/4 inch holes spaced four inches around the frame periphery. The large bubble canopy is lightly tinted and.offers very impressive 360 degree visibility. For easy cabin access the canopy is hinged on both sides. Automotive type extruded rubber sections around the canopy edges completely seal off the cabin from the elements.
Each of the three ZODIAC models are easy to build in about 400 hours from the complete "49 %" airframe kit. All quality inspected components, parts, rigging and hardware are supplied - barcode labeled and numbered for easy identification. For example, the sturdy wing spar comes complete with all solid (bucked) rivets already set by factory professionals. Surface skins - wings, ailerons, elevator, rudder, and fuselage - are ready for fitting, and most skins are pre-drilled to minimize construction time. Wing ribs and fuselage bulkheads are formed at the factory - the lightening holes are all pre-cut, de-burred and flanged. Welded parts, such as the engine mount, come factory welded and ready to bolt on. With the addition of a "firewall-forward" Rotax powerplant and instrument package, the builder has virtually everything required to assemble and fly his aircraft. Not included in the full kit is the exterior paint, cabin upholstery, and battery.
Following the comprehensive drawings and manuals (supplied with the kit), assembly of the aircraft requires only basic skills and tools, as the kit comes complete with all parts pre-formed and ready for assembly. Simple tools are needed, such as an electric hand drill, sheet-metal snips, hand files, hand riveter, a set of wrenches, Cleco temporary fasteners, etc. A bending brake, shear or other sheet metal machinery is not needed. Assembly is easily done in a single car garage or basement workshop.
The kits are approved by the FAA, meeting the requirements for amateur-built (experimental) categories in the United States, Canada, as well as in most countries around the world.
Direct factory support is always available - just a phone call or FAX away for builder support from the same professionals who build the kit components. Also, hundreds of active Zenair builders around the world are happy to help other local builders to quickly complete their projects. The Zenair Newsletter provides continuous building tips and news from other builders.
Zenair has sponsored the sheet-metal workshops for many years at the annual EAA Oshkosh and Sun N Fun Fly-ins -- to demonstrate and teach potential builders about building their own all-metal aircraft. In fact, with the help of volunteers, complete aircraft (from the kit) were assembled in just seven days! A SUPER ZODIAC CH 601 HDS will be built during the April 18-24, 1993 Sun N Fun gathering in Lakeland, Florida. The construction schedule and level of interest suggest that this aircraft will be completed and flown on the last day of the show!
Zenith Aircraft supplied a mailing list of Zodiac builders for an independent survey of builder satisfaction. To expedite returns only U.S. builders were questioned. Sixty-six letters were sent out, divided equally between plans and full kit builders. As of this date (February 22, 1993) seven replies were received and six letters were returned undelivered. Of the replies, four were from plans builders. The unusually low reply rate may be attributed to the fact that Zenair conducts its own and detailed opinion survey annually.
A rating on a scale of " 1 to 1 0" was requested, with a " 1 0" being best or most satisfactory. Additional comments were also requested. Here are the rating averages:
Plans accuracy 8.5 Plans instructions 7.3 Building ease 8.5 Factory assistance 9.6 Newsletter 9.0 Supplier/delivery 9.4
One plans builder advised he had a gripe relative to a missing drawing, which was later corrected (a complete set of drawings was received). He complemented the factory on their phone and mail support. With tail complete, fuselage on gear, wings nearing completion he estimated 600 hours of labor was involved.
Zenair advised that the Zenith CH2000 trainer project, largely based on the 601 design experience, is undergoing FAA certification. Zenair expects to fly the Lycoming 0-235, 116 hp powered airplane this year.
SPECIFICATIONS 601 HD 601 HDS OVERALL span 27.0 ft 23.0 ft length 19.0 ft 19.0 ft height-level 6.5 ft 6.5 ft height-ground 6.5 ft 6.5 ft FUSELAGE seats 2 2 frontal area 2.6 sq ft 2.6 sq ft cockpit width 44.0 in 44.0 in cockpit height 41.7 in 41.7 in PERFORMANCE Vne 150 mph 150 mph Vc, 75% power 120 mph 140 mph Va 105 mph 105 mph Vs 44 mph 54 mph rate of climb 1200 fpm 1100 fpm service ceiling 12000+ ft 12000+ ft takeoff, 50 ft obs. 1100 ft 1150 ft landing, 50 ft obs. 550 ft 550 ft range, 75% power 800 mi 950 mi fuel capacity 30.0 gal 42.0 gal wing loading 9.2 lbpsf 12.2 lbpsf power loading 15.0 lbphp 15.0 lbphp G load+ 6.0 6.0 G load - 6.0 6.0 WEIGHTS gross 1200.0 lb 1200.0 lb useful load 630.0 lb 630.0 lb baggage limit (cabin) 40 lb 40 lb WING span 27.0 ft 23.0 ft area 130.0 sq ft 98.0 sq ft aspect ratio 5.6 5.4 chord-root 58.0 in 58.0 in chord-tip 58.0 in 30.0 in airfoil-root NACA650-18 NACA650-1 8 airfoil-tip NACA650-18 NACA650-18 dihedral 6.5 deg 6.5 deg washout 2.5 deg 2.5 deg sweep 0.0 deg 0.0 deg incidence 6.0 deg 6.0 deg AILERONS (each) span 94.5 in 94.5 in area 5.1 sq ft 5.1 sq ft def-up 15.0 deg 15.0 deg def-down 15.0 deg 15.0 deg type plain plain TAIL (horizontal) span 7.2 ft 7.2 ft stab area 10.2 sq ft 10.2 sq ft elevator area 8.2 sq ft 8.2 sq ft airfoil NACA 0012 NACA 0012 def-up 32.0 deg 32.0 deg def-down 30.0 deg 30.0 deg Incidence 0.0 deg 0.0 deg TAIL (vertical) span at rudder 4.6 ft 4.6 ft stab area 0.0 sq ft 0.0 sq ft rudder area 8.4 sq ft 8.4 sq ft airfoil NACA 0012 NACA 0012 deflection 28.0 deg 28.0 deg POWERPLANT Make ROTAX 912 ROTAX 912 HP 80 80 max RPM 5800 5800 max torque 184.0 lb ft 184.0 lb ft fuel quality auto/100 LL auto/100 LL PROPELLER make GSC GSC type 3 blade, adj 3 blade, adj material wood, Al. hub wood, Al. hub diameter 66.0 in 66.0 in
Reprinted from CONTACT! Issue 13, Volume 3, Number 2, March-April 1993. Contact! magazine is published bimonthly by Aeronautics Education Enterprises, an Arizona nonprofit corporation, established in 1990 to promote aeronautical education.
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